In the wake of the Nazi genocide of Jews during the Second World War, some Christian theologians grappled with the question of the relationship of the Christian Church to the Jewish people. Between 1945-1965 they increasingly turned to chapters 9-11 of Paul's Letter to the Romans, reading it in ways that affirmed Jewish life with God. Some significant documents and writings from this period are collected here. Many of their ideas and insights were incorporated into the Second Vatican Council Declaration, Nostra Aetate and similar statements from other Christian communities.
For a detailed study of these pioneering efforts, see John Connelly, From Enemy to Brother: The Revolution in Catholic Teaching on the Jews, 1933-1965 (Harvard University Press, 2012).